姜乾,李春雷.《刑法修正案(十一)》背景下污染环境罪刑罚适正性研究[J].中国环境管理,2023,15(6):132-139.
JIANG Qian,LI Chunlei.Research on the Appropriateness of Environmental Criminal Penalty Laws and Regulations under the Background of “Criminal Law Amendment (Eleven)”[J].Chinese Journal of Environmental Management,2023,15(6):132-139.
《刑法修正案(十一)》背景下污染环境罪刑罚适正性研究
Research on the Appropriateness of Environmental Criminal Penalty Laws and Regulations under the Background of “Criminal Law Amendment (Eleven)”
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2023.06.132
中文关键词:  环境犯罪  刑罚适用  实证研究  刑罚观念  法规适正
英文关键词:environmental crime  penalty application  empirical research  concept of penalty  appropriateness of laws and regulations
基金项目:2021年度最高人民检察院理论研究部级课题“‘反向移送’视角下行政执法与刑事司法衔接机制研究”(GJ2021D15)。
作者单位E-mail
姜乾 中国人民公安大学犯罪学学院, 北京 100038  
李春雷 中国人民公安大学犯罪学学院, 北京 100038 ipr426@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      《刑法修正案(十一)》修订呈现出刑事立法对于预防与从严惩处犯罪理念的贯彻,在回应风险社会诉求的同时,立法价值观、犯罪观、刑罚观层面客观存在的二律背反现象,引发了学界对于刑罚介入边界的激烈争论。本文基于648份污染环境罪判决书,利用回归分析对污染环境罪包括有期徒刑、拘役、缓刑在内的多个判决结果与影响因素间的内在机理进行实证分析。研究表明,污染环境罪刑罚存在刑罚力度整体轻缓,金钱类环境责任序位混乱,将环境修复作为量刑情节考量指引效果较弱等问题。针对以上问题,一方面通过宽严相济纾解刑罚适用“轻刑化”之困,并重新区分以危险犯和实害犯为基准的刑罚结构;另一方面通过生态修复规范化建立积极的司法导向,并以此重构罚金刑体系。从而达到犯罪控制与生态恢复双重目的,为污染环境罪刑罚研究添砖加瓦,形成具有中国特色的环境犯罪刑罚治理体系。
英文摘要:
      The revision of the Criminal Law Amendment (Eleven) shows the transformation of criminal legislation into preventionism and the implementation of the concept of heavy punishment. While responding to the demands of risk society, there are objective antinomies in the aspects of legislative values, criminal views and penalty views, which have triggered a heated debate on the boundary of penalty intervention in academia. Based on 648 judgement documents of environmental pollution crimes, regression analysis was used to empirically analyze the internal mechanism of multiple judgement results and influencing factors of environmental pollution crimes, including fixed-term imprisonment, criminal detention and probation. The results of the study showed that the application of penalty for environmental pollution crimes is characterized by overall leniency of penalty intensity, confusion of monetary environmental responsibility order, and weak effect of environmental restoration as a guideline for sentencing circumstances. The empirical investigation showed that the above problems need to determine the basic principle of taking liability punishment as the main, and special prevention as the auxiliary. In terms of penalty allocation, the structure of free penalty is adjusted, the basic principle of restoration priority is determined for monetary environmental liability, and the orientation of fine penalty is reconstructed to ensure the standardized application of ecological restoration, so as to realize the proper allocation of penalty to penalty application, so as to achieve the dual purposes of crime control and ecological restoration, and form an environmental crime penalty governance system with Chinese characteristics.
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